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Written sources describe several collapses and upheavals in the Eastern Mediterranean, Anatolia and the Levant around the time of the Urnfield origins:.
Some scholars, among them Wolfgang Kimmig and P. Bosch-Gimpera have postulated a Europe-wide wave of migrations.
Better methods of dating have shown that these events are not as closely connected as once thought. More recently Robert Drews , after having reviewed and dismissed the migration hypothesis, has suggested that the observed cultural associations may be in fact partly explained as the result of a new kind of warfare based upon the slashing Naue II sword ,  and with bands of infantry replacing chariots in warfare.
Drews suggests that the political instability that this brought to centralised states based upon maryannu chariotry caused the breakdown of these polities.
The number of settlements increased sharply in comparison with the preceding Tumulus culture. Unfortunately, few have been comprehensively excavated.
Fortified settlements, often on hilltops or in river-bends, are typical for the Urnfield culture. They are heavily fortified with dry-stone or wooden ramparts.
Excavations of open settlements are rare, but they show that large aisled houses built with wooden posts and wall of wattle and daub were common.
Pit dwellings are known as well; they might have served as cellars. The houses were one or two-aisled. Some were quite small, 4. They were built with wooden posts and walls of wattle and daub.
The settlement of Radonice Louny contained over pits. They were most probably used to store grain and demonstrate a considerable surplus-production.
On lakes of southern Germany and Switzerland, numerous pile dwellings were constructed. They consist either of simple one-room houses made of wattle and daub, or log-built.
The settlement at Zug , Switzerland, was destroyed by fire and gives important insights into the material culture and the settlement organisation of this period.
It has yielded a number of dendro-dates as well. Fortified hilltop settlements become common in the Urnfield period.
Often a steep spur was used, where only part of the circumference had to be fortified. Depending on the locally available materials, dry-stone walls, gridded timbers filled with stones or soil or plank and palisade type pfostenschlitzmauer fortifications were used.
Other fortified settlements used river-bends and swampy areas. Most settlements are much smaller. Metal working is concentrated in the fortified settlements.
On the Runder Berg near Urach, Germany, 25 stone moulds have been found. Hillforts are interpreted as central places. Some scholars see the emergence of hill forts as a sign of increased warfare.
Most hillforts were abandoned at the end of the Bronze Age. As far as we know, there are no special dwellings for an upper class, but few settlements have been excavated to any extent.
The pottery is normally well made, with a smooth surface and a normally sharply carinated profile. Some forms are thought to imitate metal prototypes.
Biconical pots with cylindrical necks are especially characteristic. There is some incised decoration, but a large part of the surface was normally left plain.
Fluted decoration is common. In the Swiss pile dwellings, the incised decoration was sometimes inlaid with tin foil. Pottery kilns were already known Elchinger Kreuz, Bavaria , as is indicated by the homogeneous surface of the vessels as well.
The early Urnfield period BC was a time when the warriors of central Europe could be heavily armored with body armor, helmets and shields all made of bronze, most likely borrowing the idea from Mycenaean Greece.
The leaf-shaped Urnfield sword could be used for slashing, in contrast to the stabbing-swords of the preceding Tumulus culture.
It commonly possessed a ricasso. The hilt was normally made from bronze as well. It was cast separately and consisted of a different alloy.
These solid hilted swords were known since Bronze D Rixheim swords. Other swords have tanged blades and probably had a wood, bone, or antler hilt.
Flange-hilted swords had organic inlays in the hilt. Protective gear like shields , cuirasses , greaves and helmets are extremely rare and almost never found in burials.
They are supposed to have been made in upper Italy or the Eastern Alps and imitate wooden shields. Irish bogs have yielded examples of leather shields Clonbrinn, Co.
Bronze dishes phalerae may have been sewn on a leather armour. About a dozen wagon -burials of four wheeled wagons with bronze fittings are known from the early Urnfield period.
They include Hart an der Altz Kr. Altötting , Mengen Kr. Sigmaringen , Poing Kr. Ebersberg , Königsbronn Kr. Heidenheim from Germany and St.
Sulpice Vaud , Switzerland. In Alz, the chariot had been placed on the pyre, pieces of bone are attached to the partially melted metal of the axles.
Bronze one-part bits appear at the same time. Two-part horse bits are only known from late Urnfield contexts and may be due to eastern influence.
Wood- and bronze spoked wheels are known from Stade Germany , a wooden spoked wheel from Mercurago, Italy. This exceptionally rich burial was covered by a barrow.
Such wagons are known from the Nordic Bronze Age as well. At Pekatel Kr. Another example comes from Ystad in Sweden. Clay miniature wagons, sometimes with waterfowl were known there since the middle Bronze Age Dupljaja, Vojvodina, Serbia.
The Lusatian chariot from Burg Brandenburg , Germany has three wheels on a single axle , on which waterfowl perch. The grave of Gammertingen Kr.
Sigmaringen, Germany contained two socketed horned applications that probably belonged to a miniature wagon comparable to the Burg example, together with six miniature spoked wheels.
Miniature bronze wagon from Acholshausen in Germany. Bronze wheel pendants, Zürich , c. Bronze wheels from Hassloch in Germany, BC.
Hoards are very common in the Urnfield culture. The custom is abandoned at the end of the Bronze Age. They were often deposited in rivers and wet places like swamps.
As these spots were often quite inaccessible, they most probably represent gifts to the gods. Other hoards contain either broken or miscast objects that were probably intended for reuse by bronze smiths.
As Late Urnfield hoards often contain the same range of objects as earlier graves, some scholars interpret hoarding as a way to supply personal equipment for the hereafter.
An iron ring from Vorwohlde Kr. Hersbruck and knives Dotternhausen, Plettenberg , Germany and pins. The use of iron for weapons and domestic items in Europe only started in the following Hallstatt culture.
Cattle, pigs, sheep and goats were kept, as well as horses, dogs and geese. The cattle were rather small, with a height of 1. Horses were not much bigger with a mean of 1.
Forest clearance was intensive in the Urnfield period. Probably open meadows were created for the first time, as shown by pollen analysis.
This led to increased erosion and sediment-load of the rivers. Wheat and barley were cultivated, together with pulses and the horse bean.
Poppy seeds were used for oil or as a drug. Millet and oats were cultivated for the first time in Hungary and Bohemia, rye was already cultivated, further west it was only a noxious weed.
Flax seems to have been of reduced importance, maybe because mainly wool was used for clothes. Hazel nuts, apples, pears, sloes and acorns were collected.
Some rich graves contain bronze sieves that have been interpreted as wine -sieves Hart an der Alz. This beverage would have been imported from the South, but supporting evidence is lacking.
In the lacustrine settlement of Zug, remains of a broth made of spelt and millet have been found. In the lower-Rhine urnfields, leavened bread was often placed on the pyre and burnt fragments have thus been preserved.
Wool was spun finds of spindle whorls are common and woven on the warp-weighted loom ; bronze needles Unteruhldingen were used for sewing.
There is some suggestion that the Urnfield culture is associated with a wetter climatic period than the earlier Tumulus cultures.
This may be associated with the diversion of the mid-latitude winter storms north of the Pyrenees and the Alps, possibly associated with drier conditions in the Mediterranean basin.
Various large hoards of sickles have been excavated across central Europe, which feature a range of cast markings that have been interpreted in different ways.
An analysis of the Frankleben hoard from central Germany found that markings on the sickles constituted a numeral system related to the lunar calendar.
According to the Halle State Museum of Prehistory :. The scope and order of these brands follows a defined pattern. This sign language can be interpreted as a pre-form of a writing system.
There are two types of symbols: line-shaped marks below the button and marks at the angle or at the base of the sickle body.
The archaeologist Christoph Sommerfeld examined the rules and realized that the casting marks are composed of one to nine ribs.
After four left-hand, individually counted strokes there follows a bundle as a group of five on the right side.
This creates a counting system that reaches to The Synodic Moon orbit lasts 29 days or nights. This number and the lunar shape of the sickle suggest that the stroke groups should be interpreted as calendar pages, as a point in the monthly cycle.
The sickle marks are the oldest known sign system in Central Europe. Four elaborate cone-shaped hats made from thin sheets of gold have been found in Germany and France, dated to BC.
The gold cones are covered in bands of ornaments along their whole length and extent. The ornaments - mostly disks and concentric circles, sometimes wheels, crescents, pointed oval shapes and triangles - were punched using stamps, rolls or combs.
Analysis of the Berlin Gold Hat has demonstrated that its ornaments form systematic patterns which represent the Metonic cycle of a lunisolar calendar.
According to the historian Wilfried Menghin :. In the Tumulus period, multiple inhumations under barrows were common, at least for the upper levels of society.
In the Urnfield period, inhumation and burial in single flat graves prevails, though some barrows exist. In the earliest phases of the Urnfield period, man-shaped graves were dug, sometimes provided with a stone lined floor, in which the cremated remains of the deceased were spread.
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